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阿伯丁大学ESSAY代写: 障碍与治疗

阿伯丁大学ESSAY代写:  障碍与治疗

需要注意的是,有能力如反应抑制,有趣的工作记忆、情绪控制、和注意力开始在儿童早期发展(道森和罩,2008;埃利奥特1999,在帕金斯divner McCloskey,面包车,2008引)而大的发展变化在其他的技能一样,任务开始,组织,时间管理,和目标导向的持久性通常是明显的在青春期(道森和罩,2008;McCloskey et al.,2008)。然而,对于一个特定的孩子,每一个执行控制能力的发展不可能以同样的速度进步和EF发展速度可以改变时间(McCloskey et al.,2008)。同时,在执行能力的增长速度因人而异(McCloskey et al.,2008)。

从文学,很显然,EFD可以在大脑的额叶病变引起的(兰登& oggel,2002;潘宁顿& Ozonoff,1996)。由于EFS也依靠额叶脑的其他区域的连接(潘宁顿& Ozonoff,1996;保鲁夫,2010);个人可以EFDs甚至在额叶损伤缺乏经验(曼彻斯特、普莱斯利和杰克逊,2004狼,2010引用)。例如,许多人的日常生活活动中遇到的困难,由于执行功能障碍以下的伤害或疾病(保鲁夫,2010)。另外,有些人可能会显示在神经网络发展的自然进程的延误(道森和罩,2008;McCloskey et al.,2008),在某些情况下,EFDs也可能导致废用性已经开发的神经能力(McCloskey et al.,2008)。

注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)和自闭症谱系障碍(ASD)是两个病常被记录的表现由于EFDs(Biederman et al.,2004;Brown,2007;geurts,你,oosterlaan,roeyers和军士,2004;发生,展台,查尔顿&休斯,2006;潘宁顿& Ozonoff,1996)。多动症主要是由于在行为抑制,赤字的工作记忆,调节动机和电机控制(巴克利1997;道森和罩,2008;geurts et al.,2004;发生et al.,2006),结果三主要症状就是多动,注意力不集中,冲动(潘宁顿& Ozonoff,1996 Wilmshurst,2005)。自闭症儿童有困难的灵活性,在刚性和重复刻板行为、社会问题,规划/工作记忆和反应选择/监控导致交际的局限性,和一个限定范围内的利益(多德,2005;geurts et al.,2004;发生et al.,2006;owley,利文撒尔和厨师,2005;潘宁顿& Ozonoff;1996;螺母flusber &约瑟夫,2009;zingerevich和lavesser,2009)。无论是疾病的报道妨碍学生的学业成绩(Lerner和约翰,2009;乡巴佬和雷迪,2005;Owley,et al.,2005;灯芯纳尔逊与以色列,2009;Wilmshurst 2005)。

阿伯丁大学ESSAY代写:  障碍与治疗

It is interesting to note that EF capacities such as response inhibition, working memory, emotional control, and attention start to develop in early childhood (Dawson & Guare, 2008; Elliot 1999, as cited in McCloskey, Perkins & Van Divner, 2008) whereas large developmental shifts in other skills like task initiation, organization, time management, and goal-directed persistence are usually noticeable during adolescent years (Dawson & Guare, 2008; McCloskey et al., 2008). However, for a specific child, the development of each executive control capacity may not progress at the same rate and the rate of EF development can change from time to time (McCloskey et al., 2008). Also, the rate of growth in executive capacities varies from person to person (McCloskey et al., 2008).

From literature, it is clear that EFDs can be caused by lesions in the frontal lobes of the brain (Landon & Oggel, 2002; Pennington & Ozonoff, 1996). Since EFs also rely on connections of the frontal lobes to other areas of brain (Pennington & Ozonoff, 1996; Wolf, 2010); individuals can experience EFDs even in absence of frontal lobe injury (Manchester, Priestley & Jackson, 2004 as cited in Wolf, 2010). For instance, many people experience difficulty with everyday life activities due to executive dysfunction following injury or illness (Wolf, 2010). Also, some people may show delays in the natural progression of development of neural networks (Dawson & Guare, 2008; McCloskey et al., 2008) and in some cases, EFDs may also result from disuse of already developed neural capacities (McCloskey et al., 2008).

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are two psychopathologies that have been often documented to manifest due to EFDs (Biederman et al., 2004; Brown, 2007; Geurts, Verte, Oosterlaan, Roeyers & Sergeant, 2004; Happe, Booth, Charlton & Hughes, 2006; Pennington & Ozonoff, 1996). ADHD is basically due to a deficit in behavioral inhibition, working memory, regulation of motivation, and motor control (Barkley 1997; Dawson & Guare, 2008; Geurts et al., 2004; Happe et al., 2006) which results in three cardinal symptoms namely hyperactivity, distractibility, and impulsivity (Pennington & Ozonoff, 1996; Wilmshurst, 2005). Children with ASD have difficulties in flexibility, planning/working memory and response selection/monitoring which result in rigid and repetitive stereotyped behavior, social difficulties, communicative limitations, and a restricted range of interests (Dodd, 2005; Geurts et al., 2004; Happe et al., 2006; Owley, Leventhal & Cook, 2005; Pennington & Ozonoff; 1996; Tager-Flusber & Joseph, 2009; Zingerevich & LaVesser, 2009). Both disorders have been reported to impede academic achievement of students (Lerner & Johns, 2009; Rube & Reddy, 2005; Owley, et al., 2005; Wicks-Nelson & Israel, 2009; Wilmshurst 2005).