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Martin Ewan,阿富汗人民的政治简史

自冷战结束以来,阿富汗的内部暴力发生了相当大的上升。在20世纪60年代,在阿富汗的共产党人和伊斯兰主义者之间发生了一场斗争。[ 1 ]在苏联军队撤出和随后的塔利班接管后,阿富汗一直在不断地变成一个激进的伊斯兰国家。


USSR试图在阿富汗巩固政权,首先通过援助和间接参与后来通过直接军事介入,在阿富汗最终导致穆斯林游击队的胜利和伊斯兰原教旨主义的兴起内战发展的主要成分。[ 2 ]

1979、入侵后震惊了穆斯林世界。他们意识到,他们没有任何立场来进行常规的反对苏联的运动。因此,一些穆斯林志愿者开始转移到巴基斯坦,以协助在圣战组织。首批进入巴基斯坦的志愿者之一是奥萨马·本·拉登。他说:“在阿富汗的一天就像一座清真寺里的一千天”。起初他亲自覆盖了所有志愿者的旅行费用到阿富汗。1980年初,他成立了ma’sadat阿尔希拉尔,然后在阿富汗【3阿拉伯圣战者的主要基地]。这是第一次在这个国家成立了一个正式的训练营。这一时期谢赫Abd Allah Yussuf Azza期间,谁是在建立伊斯兰国际军团国际恐怖主义的核心关键,在接触到斌拉扥。他们一起建立了诱饵UL”,接受为阿富汗第一伊斯兰志愿者培训。

阿富汗圣战者发动他们的斗争,USSR不仅是一个民族解放战争,但作为一个“圣战”的极端伊斯兰分子从整个穆斯林世界的参加,有最阿拉伯和穆斯林国家[ 4 ]祝福。然而,大多数穆斯林游击队运动围绕传统宗教领导基于民族和区域的考虑,虽然一些动作是异质的,包括支持者和包括来自各个民族的支持者和活动。抗议运动形成于当地的政治和宗教领袖,并逐渐发展成两个主要派别。


“If there has been an overriding feature of their history [the Afghans], it is that it has been a history of conflict–of invasions, battles and sieges, of vendettas, assassinations and massacres, of tribal feuding, dynastic strife and civil war. (2001, 12) ”

Martin Ewan, Afghanistan, A Short History of Its People and Politics

Since the end of the Cold War, the Afghanistan has witnessed a considerable rise in internal violence. During the 1960s a struggle had developed between Communists and Islamists in Afghanistan. [1] After the withdrawal of Soviet troops and subsequent takeover by the Taliban, Afghanistan has been constantly turning into a radically Islamist nation.


The USSR’s attempts to consolidate a Communist regime in Afghanistan, first through aid and indirect involvement and later through direct military involvement, were major components in the development of the civil war in Afghanistan which eventually led to the victory of the Mujahidin and the rise of the fundamentalist Islamic regime. [2]

In 1979, after the invasion had jolted the Muslim world. They realized that they were in no position to conduct a conventional campaign against Soviet Union. Thus a number of Muslim volunteers commenced moving to Pakistan to assist in the jihad. One of the first volunteers to move in to Pakistan was Osama Bin Laden. He said, “One day in Afghanistan is like thousand days in a mosque”. At first he personally covered the cost of travel of all volunteers to Afghanistan. In early 1980, he set up Ma’sadat Al Ansar, then the main base for Arab mujahedeen in Afghanistan [3] . This was the first time a formalized training camp was set up in this country. During this period Sheikh Abd Allah Yussuf Azza, who was the key in establishing the International Legion of Islam- hard core of international terrorism, came in contact with Bin Laden. Together they established the Bait ul Ansar, which received and trained the first Islamist volunteers for Afghanistan.

The Afghan Mujahidin waged their struggle against the USSR not only as a national liberation war but as a jihad in which radical Islamic elements from throughout the Muslim world took part and which had the blessing of most Arab and Muslim states [4] . However, most of the Mujahidin movements centred around traditional religious leadership based on ethnic and regional considerations, although some of the movements were heterogeneous and included supporters and included supporters and activities from various ethnic groups. The protest movement formed around local political and religious leaders and gradually developed into two main factions.