Assignment help

美国哲学论文代写:培养品德方面

相反,公民社会在培养品德方面发挥着至关重要的作用,因为它可以为人们区分善恶提供具体和共同的标准。霍布斯指出,道德哲学中没有区分善与恶的标准,因为人们对欲望和厌恶有不同的看法。在这方面,缺乏标准将被证明是有害于美德气质的培养的,因为个人在确定美德和邪恶之间的特定界限方面可能有很大的困难。在这种情况下,霍布斯论证了在建立公民社会之前,不会有“共同的善恶规则”,因为不同的人会有不同的欲望(霍布斯)。随着公民社会的建设,人们将有共同的标准和规则来遵循和调整他们的习惯,这将有助于发展良好的性格。同时,建立在社会契约基础上的公民社会的出现,也会刺激道德倾向的兴起,因为人们愿意为了和平和自我保护而做出一定的道德行为。霍布斯揭示了公民社会是建立在个人努力追求各种美德的基础上的,比如感恩和谦逊,试图在社会成员之间建立一种和平共处的关系。因此,很明显,霍布斯认为,公民社会对于品德的培养和社会化具有特殊的意义。概括地说,霍布斯认为自然法则不是特定的行为,而是有道德的个人追求社会和平状态的特定意愿。尽管个人利益对道德倾向的发展有着显著的影响,霍布斯并不认为个人利益会导致道德行为,因为人们天生被欲望的满足所驱使。从这个意义上说,霍布斯揭示了美德只能存在于公民社会中,因为它可以为个人将美德转化为行动的意愿提供衡量和激励。与此同时,公民社会所形成的社会契约也可以使社会普遍接受和实践道德配置。

美国哲学论文代写:培养品德方面

Conversely, the civil society plays a vital role for the cultivation of virtuous dispositions, because it can offer concrete and commonly shared standards for people to distinguish good and evil. Hobbes notes that there is no standard in distinguishing good from evil in moral philosophy, because people can have different perceptions of appetites and aversions. In this aspect, the lack of standards will prove detrimental to the cultivation of virtuous dispositions, because individuals can have great difficulties in establishing particular boundaries between virtues and evils. In this case, Hobbes demonstrates that before the establishment of a civil society, there will be “no Common Rule of Good and Evil”, because different people will have different desires (Hobbes). With the construction of the civil society, people will have common standards and rules to follow and adjust their habits, which will help develop virtuous dispositions. Meanwhile, the emergence of a civil society based on social contracts will also stimulate the rise of virtuous dispositions, because people will be willing to make certain virtuous actions for the sake of peace and self-preservation. Hobbes reveals that the civil society is built upon endeavored effort by individuals in pursuing various virtues, such as gratitude and humility, in an attempt to construct a peaceful co-existence between social members. Thus, it is clear that Hobbes believes that a civil society is of particular significance for the cultivation and socialization of virtuous dispositions.To recapitulate, Hobbes perceives the laws of nature not as particular actions, but as particular willingness of virtuous individuals in pursuing a peaceful state of the society. Although self-interest has notable implications over the development of virtuous dispositions, Hobbes does not contend that self-interest will lead to virtuous actions, because people are inherently driven by the satisfying of appetites. In this sense, Hobbes reveals that virtues can only exist in a civil society, because it can provide the measurements and stimulations for individuals to transform virtuous dispositions into willingness of actions. Meanwhile, the social contracts made in a civil society can also make virtuous dispositions widely accepted and practiced in the society.

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注