Environmental Sciences Essay 代写 Implementation Of Commercial Biogas Digesters

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This feasibility study report has been prepared as per the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) signed between Grameen Shakti, Bangladesh and PEAR Carbon Offset Initiative Limited, Japan for the implementation of commercial biogas digesters as a Clean Development Mechanism Programme of Activities (CPA) to contribute to the sustainable economic development of Bangladesh.

This CPA to be implemented in Faridpur municipality includes two commercial biogas digesters with total biogas (methane content is around 65%) production capacity of 500 m3/day initially. About 250-300 households of the Faridpur municipality will enjoy gas supply from this plant. The Faridpur municipal authority collects classifies and transports the wastes to the sites of biogas digesters under contracts with Grameen Shakti. And the bioslurry from the biogas digesters is dried before it will be used as organic fertilizer to increase soil fertility and thereby productivity.

Background Information

Energy is one of the most important fundamentals of development. Bangladesh is one of the low energy consuming countries of the world. Here, only 8% people are connected to natural gas supply and 40% could so far be covered with national grid. Out of 22 gas fields discovered so far, 2 are abandoned, 5 are exhausted and the rests are going to be finished in the near future. 85% of the country's electricity is based on natural gas. With the lapse of time the situation is aggravating further as the energy demands are increasing. Searching renewable sources of energy is the only option to meet the ensuing energy crisis. Among the renewable energy technologies (RETs), biogas is considered to be the most suitable for Bangladesh as its raw materials available everywhere cheaply, temperature of Bangladesh is appropriate and technology is locally available and proven.

Grameen Shakti (GS), a non-governmental organization and a sister concern of world famous Grameen Bank, is one of the largest and fastest growing rural based renewable energy facilitator in the world. GS has developed one of the most successful market based program with a social objective for disseminating biogas technology and solar home systems to millions of rural villagers. In order to expand biogas utilization in Bangladesh, Grameen Shakti plans to implement the proposed CDM Programme of Activities (PoA) which promotes plant type commercial biogas digesters in local cities of Bangladesh to supply biogas for thermal usage of targeted households. The PoA will install numerous medium or large size biogas digesters (fixed dome type or soft bag type) which consume municipal organic wastes that are otherwise disposed to landfills where from methane is emitted to atmosphere. It is noted that this series of activities (programme) is the first-of-this-kind in Bangladesh.

Faridpur Municipal Area

The CPA covers "Municipal Area of Faridpur" and its geographical coordinates are 23°36' 36" N - 89° 51' 00" E. The figure below shows the location of Faridpur Municipality Area (yellow boundary line in the map) in Bangladesh. Faridpur Municipality was established in 1869. The Municipal Area consists of 9 wards and 35 mahallas. The area of the Municipal Area is 20.5 square km. The population of the Municipal Area is 99634; male 51.73%, female 48.27%. The density of population is 4925 per square km. The literacy rate among the town people is 66.6%.

Figure: Map of Faridpur Sub-district and Faridpur Municipality Area