Nursing Essay论文代写 ：类风湿性关节炎滑膜关节炎症开始，在一个未知的事件触发的炎症反应。没有有效的治疗类风湿性关节炎的方法是长期使用针对控制炎症和减缓疾病进展的药物。这可能会导致进一步的关节运动和残疾的损失。
Inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis begins in the synovium joint, where an unknown event triggers an inflammation reaction. With no effective cure rheumatoid arthritis is involves with long-term use of medications directed towards controlling inflammation and slowing disease progression. This could lead to further loss of joint movement and disability.
The synovial tissue also begins to proliferate, causing the smooth synovium to form pannus, a rough, grainy tissue that grows into the joint cavity and erodes cartilage. The synovium is a thin and delicate structure. It produces synovial fluids, which nourishes, lubricates and protect the articular cartilage at the end of bones within a joint.
Rheumatoid arthritis can affect connective tissue in other parts of the body. Inflammatory skin nodules at pressure points, such as the elbow, can appear gradually or suddenly, and may be tender and sometimes inflamed. Surgery is needed if these nodules become infected or are bothersome during normal activity. Sometimes they disappear on their own.
People with rheumatoid arthritis often develop eye conditions, including keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or dry eye, which causes redness, burning, itching, reduced tears, and sensitivity to light. Other complications include respiratory, heart, and also neurologic disorders. Patient with such disease should take precaution and be around family members.
Rheumatoid arthritis can be unpredictable. At times, joint pain may be constant, even without movements. It always involves the wrist and the middle of the hand and the knuckles, but seldom the joints nearest the fingertips. It also affects other parts of the body. The pain can be severe at all times.
Early morning stiffness can prolong for hours especially during flares. Fatigue is a common and disabling feature of rheumatoid arthritis which relate to pain, fever, weight loss, dry eyes and dry mouth. Other symptom includes chest pain when taking a deep breath, and difficult sleeping.
People living with symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis should have a complete medical evaluation. The symptoms and physical examination are the most important part of the diagnostic process. Blood and imaging tests are often ordered to help with diagnosis. If there is pain in the joints of our body and is uncontrollable, patient should seek help from her doctor. It is better to prevent long term joint and tissue damages.
Since rheumatoid arthritis often involves the hand and the feet, your doctor may also order x-rays and possibly Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of these joints and others to check for bone erosion. This will confirm its presence. At times patients with rheumatoid arthritis will have abnormal test result, and sometimes it normal.
Analgesic like codein may help to relieve pain and inflammation, although side effects will need monitoring. Aspiration of fluid and injection of hydrocortisone (steroids) into a join may reduce symptoms, but there are risks, which include sepsis,and other infections from bacteria and viruses. However, people taking these drugs must be watched very closely because of risk factors.
Therapy can help to maintain joint mobility and help keep the muscle strong. Other therapy is available to improve movements and reduce pain and inflammation. Some people with this disease begin aggressive therapy within weeks of diagnosis. Others may not need it right away. Therapist will also use special machine to apply deep or electrical stimulation to reduce pain and improve joint movement.
Treatments of rheumatoid arthritis changed significantly, as research developed more effective medications to fight the disease. In the past, doctors treat rheumatoid arthritis very conservatively. But evidence shows that joint damage starts early in the course of the disease, cause physicians to treat it more aggressively from the beginning (Firth, 2012). Without properly treated, permanent joint damage may occur.
Rheumatoid arthritis has several relatives. All are connectives tissues disease and are considered autoimmune disorder because they are thought to originate from abnormal immune system responses. All can cause arthritis pain, but some have a proclivity for attacking skin and other organs. As with rheumatoid arthritis, their causes are unknown. Rheumatoid arthritis can affect nearly every part of the body.
Biological response also called biologics, are a types of Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) designed to alter the function of cytokines, signaling molecules that help mount an inflammatory reaction. These drugs may be able to do what other drugs fail to do so far. It can be mild to moderate rheumatoid arthritis (Firth, 2012).
Some people with rheumatoid arthritis require surgery to replace a damage joint. Surgery is usually recommended when drug treatment alone can no longer improve the situation, although the timing of such surgery is up to you and your physician to decide. Surgery is usually to reduced pain and improved function. Although there is no known prevention for rheumatoid arthritis, early treatment can help prevent further joint damage.
Many procedures used to repaired joints damaged by osteoarthritis are also used in rheumatoid arthritis. The most common surgical procedures for rheumatoid arthritis are arthroscopy, synvectomy and arthroplasty. It all depends on which joints are involved and if you have any other medical problems. Replacement for hip and knee rheumatoid arthritis is a major operation and carries other associated risks.
The course of rheumatoid arthritis varies from person to person. Many patients experience a continuously active disease that progresses over time. Rheumatoid arthritis can progress rapidly causing severe impairments of function and damage to the cartilage and bone around the joints. The collagen within the cartilage is gradually destroyed and joint spaced is narrowed. The synovium thickens and becomes stiff with numerous unfolding, forming a growth composed of thickened synovial tissue (pannus).
Chronic inflammation damages the remaining cartilage and bones causing the involved joints to lose their shape and alignment. This leads to further pain and loss of function. Symptoms caused difficulty moving the affected joint, resulting in a reduction in range of motion. In late stages, deformity and ankylosis (fusion of joints) may develop (Swan, 2011).
As rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disease, it can affect the whole body. Patients may feel generally unwell, similar to when an infection strikes. In addition, inflammation may affect membranes of internal organs such as the lungs, the heart, leading to conduction deficits, mitral valve disease and pericarditis. There can also be skin ulcers, loss of mucus and tear production. There are numerous complications associated with rheumatoid arthritis, and family members do help their family at times of need.
Healthcare staff may encounter patients that are reluctant to have treatment in home care facilities. It is important that patients seek medical advice and a referral to a rheumatologist is advisable, particularly as rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disease. Patient who is in primary care with symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis need early access to specialist care (Oliver, 2009).
Health professionals can help by explaining this symptoms, providing information and referring patients to others. For instance depression is a common problem that people with rheumatoid arthritis experience. This is understandable due to the pain and suffering, and restrictions on activities. During activities frequent rest is required and 8 to 10 hours of sleep is required per night (Swan, 2011).
People react differently to being informed that they have this chronic and painful illness. Some patients may be in denial and carry on with their daily living, while others may want a cure and will try any treatment possible. Some individuals may take a balance and wish to know much as possible about their illness.
Nurses in primary care plan play a vital and valued role in helping patients with rheumatoid arthritis but this is a strong collaboration with the specialist team. There are significant challenges to ensuring high quality care for patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other muscular skeletal conditions.
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis often find that they joints are stiff, swollen and do not move properly, causing them considerable pain and discomfort. If rheumatoid arthritis is not brought under control, the destruction of nearby cartilage, bone, tendons and ligaments can follow.
Many sufferer of this disease are unable to perform simple, everyday tasks because of this joint inflammation. There are many ways to helped overcome such problems area especially in rheumatoid arthritis. Anyone with this symptom of rheumatoid arthritis should call her health care provider.