Psychology Essay 代写：非典型心理治疗与治疗心理学论文
Psychology Essay 代写：非典型心理治疗与治疗心理学论文
Depression is probably the most common psychiatric complaint and has been described by physicians since before the time of the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates, who called it melancholia. The course of the disorder is extremely variable from person to person. For some people can became acute or chronic or for some can be severe or just mild. It can occur at any age but the usual occurrence is in their 20s and it is twice prevalent in women than in men (Britannica, 2013).
Depressions can have many causes. Negative thoughts about oneself and the world, also unfavourable life events can increase a person’s vulnerability to depression or trigger a depressive episode. Both psychosocial and biochemical mechanisms are the causes for depressions. Related to the biochemical causes it seems that it is a defective regulation of the release of one or more naturally occurring neurotransmitters in the brain, particularly norepinephrine and serotonin (Britannica, 2013) (Mike Cardwell, 1996).
A person who is depressed usually experiences several of the following symptoms: pessimism, hopelessness or lowered self-esteem, feelings of sadness and heightened self-depreciation. They have a decrease or loss of ability to take pleasure in ordinary activities, slowness of thought or action also people with depressions lose their appetite, have disturbed sleep or even insomnia (Britannica, 2013).
There are several types of treatments for depressions. The two most widely spread and most important are psychotherapy and psychotropic medication, specifically antidepressants. The aim of the psychotherapy is to alter the patient’s maladaptive cognitive and behavioural responses to stressful life events and also to give to the patient emotional support. In contrast with psychotherapy, antidepressant medications affect directly the chemistry of the brain and presumably achieve their therapeutic effects by correcting the chemical deregulations that is causing the depression. Antidepressants, started to be developed in 1950s. They work manly by boosting two brain chemicals, serotonin and noradrenaline (Britannica, 2013), (Hand-out, 2013).
There are three kinds of antidepressants that serve to prevent the presynaptic reuptake of serotonin. The effectiveness of antidepressants was tested by Spiegel (1989) and he found that 65% of the patients improved with Tricyclic. Tricyclic Amines antidepressant includes Imipramine and Amitriptyline, being the most commonly prescribed types of drug in 1990s. Mono-amine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs for short) such as Iproniazid are equally effective. Another type of antidepressant is the more recently developed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs short) named Prozac (fluoxetine). The result of taking these medications is an accumulation of neurotransmitters in the brain that allows them to remain in contact with the nerve cell receptors longer, resulting in to an elevated mood of the patient. (Britannica, 2013), (Mike Cardwell, 1996).
fluoxetine) also the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) have been found to markedly reduce the symptoms in about 60% of cases and that’s why they become the treatment of choice. Both of these drugs affect the brain’s metabolism of the neurotransmitter serotonin which has made the researchers to suspect that obsessive-compulsive disorders grow in the first place from defects in the brain’s neurochemical functioning instead of purely psychological causes. The problem with these drugs, like in the other cases, is that they are highly addictive and have a short-term efficiency (Britannica, 2013).