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欺负是指重复负面行为随着时间的推移,针对个人(Olweus,2002)。美国卫生和人类服务部指出,欺凌涉及一种权力的不平衡(“现在停止欺凌,”2010)。被看作是一个连续的戏弄和残酷的欺负的另一个。另一个欺负行为的定义是“持续和频繁,包括口头辱骂、谩骂、威胁、偷盗、行为和身体攻击”(弗雷德曼,2002,p. 5)。弗里德曼(2002)指出,欺凌还包括“权力失衡”(p.5)当欺负大,大,并具有较高的自我价值。欺凌发生在一个社会生态框架与欺负是不同的环境,如学校,家庭,同行和社区的一部分


有四个主要的欺凌行为的类型:物理,情感/社会、语言、(2003 Fox和博尔顿,),和/或网络欺凌(薛拉斯,2002)。身体欺负的例子包括打击,踢,偷,打,或破坏别人的财物。言语欺凌可以是戏弄,骂人,八卦,或威胁。情感的社交欺凌可以散布谣言关于某人,隔离某人,或故意留下某人(C. Graves,个人通信,2010年4月16日)。网络欺负或欺负在线”(Sheras,2002,p. 55)已经成为一个新的问题,孩子在手机和电子邮件帐户,并参与社交网络首次在更年轻的年龄。


Bullying is defined as repeated negative actions over time directed at an individual (Olweus, 2002). The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services states that bullying involves an imbalance of power (“Stop bullying now,” 2010). Seen as a continuum with teasing at one end and brutal bullying at the other. Another definition of bullying is “ongoing and frequent and includes verbal taunting, name-calling, threats, stealing, and acts of physical aggression” (Freedman, 2002, p. 5). Freedman (2002) stated that bullying also includes and “imbalance of power” (p.5) when the bully is older, larger, and has a high value of self. Bullying occurs within a social-ecological framework with the bully being a part of different environments such as school, home, peers, and community

There has only been one large-scale study conducted on bullying in the United States. Nansel et al. (2001) asked 15,686 6th-through 10th-grade students to self-rate themselves as victims or as bullies. The results found that 29.9% of the students indicated that they had been bullied or were bullies. Of the 15,686 students, 10.6% identified themselves as victims and 13 % indicated that they were bullies, and the remainder indicated that they have been both. In addition, this study found that there was a higher level of bulling in the middle school years compared to the high school years and that boys were more likely to be involved in bullying than girls. Boys are more likely to engage in physical bullying (Espelage, Bosworth, & Simon, 2001). Girls are more aggressive relationally

There four main types of bullying behavior: physical, emotional/social, verbal, (Fox and Boulton, 2003), and/or cyber-bullying (Sheras, 2002). Examples of physical bullying include punching, kicking, stealing, hitting, or damaging someone else’s belongings. Verbal bullying can be teasing, name-calling, gossip, or threats. Emotional-Social bullying can be spreading rumors about someone, isolating someone, or leaving someone out on purpose (C. Graves, personal communication, April 16, 2010). Cyber-bullying or “bullying on-line” (Sheras, 2002, p. 55) has become a new problem as children are getting cell phones and e-mail accounts, and are becoming involved with social networks for the first time at much younger ages.


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