Implemented and Attained series New Parade. These texts embrace the communicative approach and come with a substantive teacher’s guide, cassettes and other resources to help students learn English in an interactive and enjoyable way. Finally, the curriculum departments responsible for assessment. While this should create a natural synergy, whereby changes in textbooks (intended curriculum) lead to changes in teaching styles (implemented curriculum) and examinations (attained curriculum), this has not been the case. Examinations have retained a heavy focus on textbook memorization, and therefore discourage teachers from embracing new student centered approaches to teaching. Other Influences on Curriculum Development Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research Typically, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research (MOHESR) would have little to no role in curriculum development at the school level. However, in 2007 the MOHESR introduced the Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) for English in order to determine which students would be required to take a foundation year (or two) to strengthen their English language skills before entering the public universities, all of which conduct instruction in English. The initial year saw a number of problems, including the poor preparation of teachers for the exam and a mismatch between the exam content and the content of the textbooks. In order to address this dilemma, the Grade 12 English curriculum has since been modified to better reflect the topics covered in the CEPA exam. The CEPA was subsequently also launched for Math, and in 2009 it was introduced for Arabic. It will therefore continue to have some impact on what students learn in these subjects in Grade 12, as it is compulsory for those who wish to enter one of the three public higher education institutions in the UAE (UAE University, The Higher Colleges of Technology, and Zayed University) to pass the exam.