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第二个原因是德国糟糕的物流和规划策略。其中一个原因是德国过于自信,他们低估了苏联。这就导致了不现实的、糟糕的战略和物流。入侵有三个主要目标。由130万军队、2,600辆坦克和7,800火炮组成的集团军中心在莫斯科进行了大规模的军事行动。与此同时,陆军北方军,由70万军队、770辆坦克和4000炮兵组成。(《巴巴罗萨行动:历史上最大的军事冒险》)希特勒使用了一种叫做“闪电战”的策略。希特勒用同样的策略打败法国和波兰,但这对苏联不利。苏联也对这次入侵感到惊讶,因为斯大林认为德国不会攻击它自己的盟国,特别是在签署了莫洛托夫-里宾特洛甫条约之后。由于燃料补给困难,德国有时没有足够的燃料到达目的地。他们的军队没有足够的弹药和其他物资。食物对希特勒来说从来不重要。由于在战场前线或向俄罗斯腹地行进时很难获得物资,希特勒不得不在食物、弹药和暖和的衣服之间做出选择,希特勒主要是选择弹药而不是其他的。战场上的指挥官们依靠当地的牲畜来喂饱士兵,这一直持续到物资短缺导致军队吃掉他们的马的时候。到1941年9月,德国在“巴巴罗萨行动”(Operation Barbarossa)的后勤失败,以及它与之相关的失败。到目前为止,德国已经取得了胜利,入侵也取得了成功。他们已经占领了基辅和敖德萨,并向列宁格勒和莫斯科推进。到1941年12月,德国军队共杀害了36万苏联士兵,造成100万人受伤,并夺取了200多万人的生命,到今年年底,赤军总损失约340万。6个月后,德国军队和他们的盟友们前进了600英里,占领了超过50万平方公里的苏联领土,拥有7500万人口。


Second reasons were German’s poor logistics and planning strategy. One of the reasons is because Germany was way too confidents, they’ve over underestimated Soviet Union. That leads to unrealistic, poor strategy and logistics. “The invasion had three main objectives. Army Group Center, consisting of 1.3 million troops, 2,600 tanks and 7,800 artillery pieces, mounted a massive drive on Moscow. Meanwhile, Army Group North, consisting of 700,000 troops, 770 tanks and 4,000 artillery pieces.” (Erik Sass, Operation Barbarossa: The Biggest Military Adventure in History) Hitler uses the strategy called “blitzkrieg”, or “lightning war”. This is the same strategy Hitler use to defeat France and Poland, but this doesn’t work on Soviet Union. Soviet Union was also surprised by this invasion, due to Stalin’s belief Germany won’t attack it’s own allied, especially after signing the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. Due to the difficulty of getting fuel for supplies, Germany sometimes has not enough fuel to reach to the destination. Their army doesn’t have enough ammunition and other supplies as well. Food was never important to Hitler. Because it is hard to get supplies while in the frontline of battlefield or marching toward the heartland of Russia, Hitler has to choose between food, ammunition, and warm clothes, Hitler mostly choose ammunition instead of others. “Commanders in the field relied on foraging local livestock to feed the soldiers and this continued until such time when shortages resulted in troops eating their units’ horses.” (MAJ Loganathan, Failure Of Logistics In “Operation Barbarossa” And Its Relevance Today) By September 1941, Germany was winning and the invasion was successful so far. They have already conquered Kiev and Odessa, and pushing forward to Leningrad and Moscow. “By December 1941, the combined German armies had killed 360,000 Soviet soldiers, wounded one million, and captured two million more, for total Red Army losses of around 3.4 million by the end of the year. In six months, German troops and their allies advanced up to 600 miles and occupied over 500,000 square miles of Soviet territory, home to 75 million people.


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