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英国发展研究学essay代写:重要研究课题

不同,男性和女性使用礼貌语言策略一直是社会语言学的一个重要研究课题。Lakoff是过去四十年的性别差异研究最重要的学者之一。她对语言和妇女地位的1975项研究在性别差异的礼貌问题上起到了关键作用。在她有影响力的研究,她认为女性的声音比语言形式如标签问题和请求的男子声音更礼貌多了(p.17-19)。换句话说,在会话中女性比男性更倾向于使用礼貌策略。礼貌策略的一个方面是演讲者不应该把观点强加给别人。因此,附加疑问句是一种礼貌的说法,并没有强迫协议或信仰的对象。使用标记问句是礼貌中性别差异的一种特殊语言特征。福尔摩斯认为,一般女性比男性使用更多的标签,Lakoff预测。在对一个六万字的语料库进行研究后,她在下面的表格中总结了她的发现。恰恰相反,正如结果中清楚地看到的那样,福尔摩斯指出,男人和女人不使用同一目的的附加疑问句。女性比男性对放标签的礼貌或情感功能的重视,以促进积极礼貌策略。男人,另一方面使用更多的标签的不确定性”的表达(1992,p.320)。事实上,女性倾向于把标记问题当作礼貌的指示器,而男人则用它们来表达口语情境中的不确定性。

英国发展研究学essay代写:重要研究课题

Differences in the ways that men and women use politeness language strategies have been one of the most important research subjects in sociolinguistic. Lakoff is one of the most significant scholars of gender-difference research for the past forty years. Her 1975 study into language and woman’s place plays a key role in launching the issue of gender-related differences in politeness. In her influential research, she concludes that women’s speech sounds much more polite than men’s sound in terms of linguistic forms like tag-questions and requests (p.17-19). In other words, in conversation females are more likely to use politeness strategies in their speech than males. One aspect of politeness strategies is that the speaker should not impose a viewpoint on other people. Thus a tag-question is a kind of polite statement in that it does not force agreement or belief on the addressees. Using tag-questions is a special linguistic feature of gender differences in politeness. Holmes agrees that in general the women use more tags than the men, as Lakoff predicts. She summarizes her findings in the following table after she carries out a research into a sixty-thousand word corpus containing equal amounts of female and male speech collected in a range of matched contexts . On the contrary, as it is clearly seen in the result that Holmes identifies that men and women do not use tag questions for the same purpose. “Women put more emphasis than men on the polite or affective functions of tags, using facilitative positive politeness devices. Men, on the other hand use more tags for the expression of uncertainty” (1992, p.320). In fact, women tend to consider tag questions as an indicator of politeness while men use them to express uncertainty in colloquial situations.

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