Assignment help


本文将银行的类型分为三种:商业银行、零售银行和投资银行。首先,商业银行是一种金融机构,主要提供存取款等服务,并向大企业提供贷款。其次,与商业银行不同,零售银行或消费银行为非商业领域的客户提供同样的服务。最后,投资银行不是提供收钱或发放贷款等服务的银行。另一方面,是银行提供上市、并购甚至接管其他公司的建议。英国退欧对这类银行的影响,可能会引发与资产管理服务类似的问题。这主要是因为欧盟要求金融工具市场指令(MiFiD)的批准,以允许银行在欧盟运营。为了保持MiFiD的地位,英国必须加入欧洲经济区(EEA)。如果英国支持“硬退欧”,这种情况不太可能发生。这是因为“硬退欧”意味着英国必须放弃其MiFid许可证,因为它将不再有效。因此,这一事件导致全球领先的金融机构离开英国。自英国公投以来,巴黎一直是欧洲金融中心最大的竞争对手之一。然而,由于高企的公司税税率(33.3%),巴黎的吸引力将会减弱(Stothard, 2017)。从这个意义上说,机会现在属于都柏林,因为爱尔兰12.5%的税率可以吸引来自世界各地的公司。此外,那些希望迁往爱尔兰的公司不需要建立新的银行执照。美国银行(Bank of America)宣布,在英国脱欧后,将都柏林作为其欧盟业务总部(Noonan, 2017)。美国银行是美国总资产第二大银行。美国银行(Bank of America)首席执行官布赖恩•莫伊尼汉(Brian Moynihan)也向英国《金融时报》表示:“我们一直在与爱尔兰央行(Central Bank of Ireland)合作,将一切准备就绪,到目前为止,这是一个非常顺利的过程。”政府正试图帮助我们通过监管程序。”(努南,2017年)。由于政府的支持和都柏林现有的银行执照,它可以支持美国银行在英国脱欧前轻松完成其进程。


In this essay, the types of bank will be categorized into three types: commercial bank, retail bank and investment bank. Firstly, commercial bank is a financial institution which mainly provides such services as deposit and withdraw of money and offers loans to big business. Secondly, unlike commercial bank, retail bank or consumer bank provides the same services to customers in a non-business sector. Lastly, investment bank is not the bank who provides such services as accepting money or issuing loans services. On the other hand, it is the bank who provides advises on stock market launch, mergers and acquisition or even taking over other company.The impact of Brexit on these types of banks could cause the similar problems as in asset management services. This is mainly because the EU requires the approval of Markets in Financial Instruments Directives (MiFiD) to allow banks to operate in the EU. In order to maintain MiFiD status, the UK must be part of the European Economic Area (EEA). This circumstance is not likely to occur if the UK favours a ‘hard Brexit’. This is because ‘hard Brexit’ means the UK has to relinquish its MiFid license as it will no longer be valid. As a result, this occurrence causes the world’s leading financial institutions to leave the UK.Paris has been one of the biggest rivals for the European financial centre since the UK referendum. However, due to the high corporate tax rate, 33.3 percent, this effects Paris’s attractiveness to be lessen (Stothard, 2017). In this sense, the opportunity is now belonging to Dublin because 12.5 percent tax rate in Ireland could attract the firms from all over the world. Moreover, those firms who wish to move to Ireland do not need to establish new banking license. This is exemplified by the announcement from the Bank of America, the second largest bank in America by total asset, that the bank has chosen Dublin as the headquarter office for its EU operation after Brexit (Noonan, 2017). Brian Moynihan, chief executive officer of the Bank of America, also told the Financial Times that “We’ve been working with the Central Bank of Ireland to get it all set up and it’s been a very smooth process so far. The government is trying to help us get through the regulatory process.” (Noonan, 2017). As a consequence of the support from the government and an existing banking license of Dublin, it could support the Bank of America to accomplish its process ahead of Brexit easily.


电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注