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英国经济学essay代写:政府开支

政府支出是政府和地方政府的消费(Devitt 2018)。政府开支的一个例子是修建一条从利默里克到戈尔韦的新高速公路。政府支出可以被财政政策调整和影响。财政政策是涉及政府支出和税收的经济政策(Gamez等,2017)。截至今天,我们仍在为爱尔兰政府的错误付出代价,截至2017年底,我们的未偿债务超过201亿欧元(财政部2018年)。如果英国硬退欧,爱尔兰可能被迫陷入衰退,历史最终可能重演。英国财政委员会(fiscal council)发布的一份报告解释了政府需要“为支出计划制定一个明确的锚点,以避免重蹈覆辙”(2018年财政委员会)。该报告指出了爱尔兰可以改进预算的方法,以便制定中期支出预算。如果我们要提前计划,为各种类型的脱欧做准备,我们需要看看如何才能改善我们目前的财务状况。需要开发的三个主要工具是;支出上限、债务目标和应急基金。目前的政府开支上限是不现实的,也不起作用(2018年财政委员会)。爱尔兰经常预算不足,这意味着我们无法预见任何冲击,例如硬退欧。如果我们想对政府支出获得更多控制,改善我们的债务目标势在必行。政府设定了债务目标;然而,这并没有出现在明年的预算中。英国财政委员会(fiscal council)编制的这份报告建议,政府公布其债务目标,以便“随着时间的推移”对其进行评估。除此之外,该报告还建议设定一个低于GDP 55%的目标,因为这是一个更现实的目标。最后,2019年引入雨天基金可能是英国退欧后许多潜在问题的解决方案。从长远来看,增加5亿欧元的预算资金可以使国家受益,从而为可能发生的意外事件做好准备。

英国经济学essay代写:政府开支

Government expenditure is the consumption of the government and local authorities (Devitt 2018). An example of government expenditure would be, the building of a new motorway from Limerick to Galway. Government expenditure can be adjusted and influenced by a fiscal policy. A fiscal policy is an economic policy involving government spending and taxes (Gamez et al 2017). As of today, we are still paying for the mistakes of the Irish government with our outstanding debt being over €201 billion as of the end of 2017 (Department of Finance 2018). In the event of a hard Brexit, Ireland could be forced into recession and history could end up repeating itself. A report published by the fiscal council explained how the government need to “develop a clear anchor for spending plans if it is to avoid repeating mistakes of the past” (The Fiscal Council 2018). The report showed ways in which Ireland can improve its budget so to aim for a medium-term spending budget. If we are to plan ahead and prepare for all types of Brexit, we need to look at how we can improve our current financial state. The three main tools that need to be developed are; spending ceilings, debt target and rainy-day fund. The current government spending ceilings are unrealistic and not working (The Fiscal Council 2018). Ireland is constantly under-budgeting which means we are unable to foresee any shocks, for example, a hard Brexit. If we want to gain more control over government spending, an improvement in our debt target is imperative. The government has set debt targets; however, this was not seen in the budget for next year. The report prepared by the fiscal council suggests that, the government publish its debt targets so they can be ‘assessed over time’. As well as this, the report recommends setting a lower target than 55% of GDP as it is a more realistic goal. Lastly, an introduction of the rainy fund in 2019 could be the solutions to many potential problems post-Brexit. An increase in the current budgeted fund of €0.5 billion could benefit the state in the long-run, so to prepare for unforeseen events that could occur.

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