减少睡眠的患病率逐年快速增长和全球。1960年,平均睡眠时间估计为8.0 – -8.9 h通常满足人类需求(12),而模态睡眠时间在过去10年里已经下降到小于7 h /根据2010年睡眠在美国国家睡眠基金会调查(14)。在美国,超过3在10个美国成年人睡眠6小时/晚或少根据国家卫生统计中心发布的报告(11)。2007年,加拿大的一项调查报告,在不列颠哥伦比亚省居民每天平均只睡6.5小时(15),这并不比美国的统计数据。对于儿童和青少年来说,此外,充足的睡眠对大脑发育和身体增长尤为重要,但他们的睡眠时间被确定不到要求(16)。据沃尔夫森和Carskason调查了3120名高中学生在13 – 19岁,他们的平均睡眠时间为7.5 h在工作日期间,这是2 h小于最优为青少年睡眠长度;此外,87%的学生称白天疲劳,26%的人报告说,他们通常睡6.5小时或更少的(16)。如果睡眠不足成为一种习惯在儿童或青少年时期,它更有可能持续到成年期作为生活的一部分(13)。
减少睡眠结果许多原因,包括不健康的生活方式和睡眠障碍(8,16 – 19)。太阳和他的同事们最近发表在《富山出生队列研究,12 – 13岁青少年y(n = 5753),他们花了很多时间看电视和玩电子游戏倾向于推迟就寝时间,暴饮暴食,并成为体育运动(8)。除了生活方式的选择,轮班工作的快速发展,中介中断睡眠和昼夜节律行为和生理上,导致睡眠减少在过去的几年中(18)。此外,睡眠紊乱和疾病引起的夜间工作,如严重或慢性失眠,睡眠呼吸暂停症,焦虑和抑郁,大幅降低睡眠质量和持续时间(17)。
The prevalence of reduced sleep is increasing rapidly and globally year by year. In 1960, the average sleep duration was estimated to be 8.0-8.9 h which generally met human requirements (12), whereas the modal sleep duration in the past 10 years has dropped to less than 7 h/night according to the 2010 Sleep in America Poll conducted by the National Sleep Foundation (14). In U.S., more than 3 in 10 American adults sleep 6 h/night or less based on the report published by National Centre for Health Statistics (11). In 2007, a Canadian survey reported that residents in British Columbia only slept an average of 6.5 h per day (15), which is not better than U.S. statistics. For children and adolescents, moreover, adequate sleep is particularly important for brain development and body growth, but their sleep duration was identified less than required as well (16). According to Wolfson and Carskason who surveyed 3,120 high school students across ages 13-19, their average sleep time was 7.5 h during weekdays, which is 2 h less than the optimal sleep length for adolescents; additionally, 87% of students claimed daytime tiredness and 26% reported that they usually slept 6.5 h or less (16). If insufficient sleep becomes a habit in childhood or adolescence, it is more likely to continue into adulthood as a part of lifestyle (13).
Reduced sleep results from many reasons, including unhealthy lifestyles and sleep disorders (8, 16-19). Sun and colleagues recently reported in the Toyama Birth Cohort Study that adolescents aged 12-13 y (n=5753) who spent many hours watching TV and playing video games tended to delay bedtimes, over-eat, and become physically inactive (8). In addition to lifestyle choices, the rapid development of shift work, mediating disruption to sleep and circadian rhythms behaviorally and biologically, has contributed to sleep reduction over the past years (18). Furthermore, sleep disorders and illnesses induced by nightly works, such as severe or chronic insomnia, sleep apnea, anxiety and depression, substantially decrease sleep quality and duration (17).
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