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英国留学生代写论文:功利主义在计算

功利主义的另一个问题是实时计算行为的效用是不切实际的。效用的计算被认为是弄巧成拙的,因为在计算和决定了最实用的行动方针时,采取这种行动的机会很可能已经过去了。一个人如何才能计算出所有可能的行动中,哪一项能最大限度地提高整体幸福感。如果一个人陷入困境,需要迅速做出决定,该怎么办?在压力大的情况下,一个人通常没有时间坐下来精确计算哪个决定能带来最大的快乐和最小的痛苦。密尔驳斥了这一观点,他的回应是,人类通过经验学会了一般的道德原则,而这些经验日后在这种情况下可以依赖。生活中的每一种情况都不需要精确的计算,因为这是不切实际的。在他的文章《功利主义》的第二章中,密尔对这种批评作出了回应:“在这种情况下,一个人应该遵循常识性的道德准则,这些准则总结了许多人类的经验,往往会引导我们采取行动,促进普遍的幸福,而不是采取行动,往往会抑制幸福。”此外,一个人可以培养习惯和培养个性,使人们倾向于以幸福促进的方式行动。我觉得他的回答是正确的,因为在没有精确计算的普通情况下做出决策时,功利主义理论仍然在使用。在做决定时,不需要进行精确的计算,就可以假定常识道德规则作为指导,这是合乎逻辑的。约翰·斯图亚特·密尔功利主义的另一个问题是,某些功利主义原则的严格应用会导致令人不快的后果。这已经被许多功利主义批评家争论过了,而且有很多例子表明应用功利主义的结果会导致不可接受的结果。

英国留学生代写论文:功利主义在计算

Another problem with utilitarianism is the impracticality of calculating the utility of actions in real time. The calculation of utility is said to be self-defeating as by the time the best utilitarian course of action has been calculated and decided, the opportunity to take this action may well have passed. How can one calculate which of all possible actions will maximise the most happiness overall. What if one is in a dilemma and has a decision to make quickly? In high pressure situations, one usually does not have time to sit down and make exact calculations regarding which decision will bring about the most happiness and minimise pain. Mill deflected this objection with the response that humans learn general moral principle though experience that can later be relied on in such situations. Exact calculations are not necessary for each situation in life as this would be impractical. In chapter 2 of his essay Utilitarianism, Mill replies to such criticism: “In such circumstances, one should follow common-sense moral rules, which summarize lots of human experience, and tend to guide us toward actions that promote general happiness and away from actions that tend to dampen it. Also, one can cultivate habits and train individual character, so that people become disposed to act in ways that are happiness-promoting.” I feel his reply is valid as utilitarianism as a theory is still in use when making decisions in ordinary situations without exact calculations. It is logical to assume common sense moral rules as guidance when making decisions without needing to apply exact calculations.A further problem of John Stuart Mill’s utilitarianism is that strict application of some utilitarian principles can result in unpalatable consequences. This has been argued by many of utilitarianism critics and there are plentiful examples of scenarios where consequences of utilitarianism being applied leads to unacceptable consequences.

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