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英国留学生代写论文:国家的契约

首先,我们必须分析主权不可分割的模式。霍布斯对国家的论点是,在某种程度上,社会的组成部分在他们之间订立了一个契约,把他们的大部分自然权利交给一个人,君主,在他们新成立的联邦中建立一个主权权力(霍布斯110)。通过排列,孩子们必须服从君主,因为他们受自然法则的支配,这意味着服从君主的权力会一代一代地传递下去(霍布斯127-35)。组成联邦的是一群个人及其后代,他们都受主权权力的支配。然而,这回避了主权究竟由什么构成的问题,因为自然权利可以以不同的方式和不同程度地丧失。霍布斯对这个问题给出了两个答案,后者直接扩展了前者。首先,霍布斯对主权的定义虽然模糊,但主权是一个实体,它承载着臣民的“人”(霍布斯105-110)。其次,他以一种更具体的方式提出,主权是一套广泛的权力,可以制定法律,任意奖励和惩罚臣民,选择顾问和部长,建立和实施阶级区分,审判争议,发动战争和缔造和平,等等(霍布斯113-15)。霍布斯认为,由于臣民把自己的“人”交给了君主,臣民就丧失了道德判断的权利,因为君主的每一个行为表面上都是臣民在执行。君主成为唯一,绝对判断”任何他认为必要的要做,两个beforehanda€¦,当失去了和平与安全,为经济复苏的“和”观点和学说所厌恶,传导,和平”(霍布斯113)。换句话说,公民可能永远不会批评主权者,因为臣民放弃了判断主权者是否在朝着他们确立的目标行动的能力。

英国留学生代写论文:国家的契约

To start, one must analyze the model of undivided sovereignty. Hobbes’s argument for the state is that at some point, constituents of society made a contract amongst themselves to surrender most of their natural right up to a single man, the monarch, establishing a sovereign power in their newly formed commonwealth (Hobbes 110). By permutation, children must obey the sovereign because they are subject to their parents by the natural law, meaning subjection to the sovereign power passes on from one generation to the next (Hobbes 127-35). What constitutes a commonwealth is a group of individuals and their progeny, who are all subject to the sovereign power. This, however, begs the question of exactly what constitutes the sovereign power, since natural right can be forfeited in both different ways and in varying degrees.Hobbes provides two answers to this question, the latter directly expanding upon the former. The first is that Hobbes defines, albeit vaguely, that sovereignty is an entity bearing the “person” (Hobbes 105-110) of those subject thereto. Second, he argues in a more concrete manner, that sovereignty is the extensive set of powers to make laws, reward and punish subjects arbitrarily, choose counselors and ministers, establish and enforce class distinctions, judge controversies, wage war and make peace, and so on (Hobbes 113-15). Hobbes claims that by giving up their “person” to the sovereign, subjects forfeit the right to make moral judgments because every act of the sovereign is ostensibly performed by the subjects. The monarch becomes the sole, absolute judge of “whatsoever he shall think necessary to be done, both beforehand…and, when peace and security are lost, for the recovery of the same” and “what opinions and doctrines are averse, and what conducing, to peace” (Hobbes 113). In other words, citizens may never criticize the sovereign, since subjects surrender their very ability to judge whether the sovereign power is acting towards the goals for which they established it.

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