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正如Howatt和Dakin(1974)所定义的,倾听是一种识别和理解说话人的口音、发音、语法、词汇以及信息含义的能力。从这个角度来看,倾听的行为必须包括倾听和理解所传递信息的所有方面。在这个定义中听力可以被看作是听力理解。Forseth Rol, Forseth Carol, Ta & Nguyen (1996, p.69)说“倾听就是解码声音,理解声音背后的含义”。值得注意的是,这两个定义有相似之处,作者强调听者在听时的理解。然而,Hasan(2000)区分了听力理解和听力理解。他认为倾听是一个过程,听众只是听演讲,而不理解和回应。相反,听力理解是一个由互动性和对课文的充分理解组成的过程。在我看来,在哈桑的定义中,倾听有点类似于倾听。欧麦利和查莫特(1990,p.132)认为:“听力理解需要积极和有意识的过程,在这个过程中,听者通过上下文信息和现有知识中的线索来构建意义


Listening, as Howatt and Dakin (1974) define, is the ability to recognize and comprehend what is being delivered by speakers in terms of their accent, pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary as well as the meaning of the message. In this point of view, the act of listening must include both hearing and understanding all aspects of the message delivered. Listening in this definition can be seen as listening comprehension. Forseth Rol, Forseth Carol, Ta & Nguyen (1996, p.69) say that “listening is decoding sounds and understanding the meaning behind those sound”. It is noticeable that there is a similarity in these two definitions in which the authors emphasize listener’s comprehension in listening.However, Hasan (2000) differentiates between listening and listening comprehension. He viewed listening as a process where the listeners merely listen to the speech without understanding and responding to it. In contrast, listening comprehension is a process comprising of interactivity and full comprehending of the text. To my perspective, listening in Hasan’s definition is somewhat similar to hearing.In the view of O’Malley & Chamot (1990, p.132) “listening comprehension entails active and conscious process in which the listener constructs the meaning by using cues from contextual information and from existing knowledge


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