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英国留学生作业代写:知道的涵义

笛卡尔用KK理论来证明这些论证是如何运作的。KK的论点是:如果a知道p,那么a知道a知道p,基本上这意味着如果我知道外面有雪,那么我知道外面有雪。这个论点的问题是,如果我们对自己的感官不确定,那么我们就无法确定我们所拥有的知识。要使这篇论文起作用,一个人必须对“知道”的真正含义有很强的理解。但我们不可能有这样的理解。一个人必须有自知之明,或者一个人必须真正了解自己。因此,如果你没有自我的概念,那么你就没有任何知识。正如我们所看到的,KK的论点与笛卡尔在他所有的论点中所说的是一致的。唯一的问题是他不相信他关于上帝的论证是那么有力。他觉得如果有一个无所不能的上帝,那么他就永远无法欺骗我们。他不可能知道所有的事情,让我们怀疑我们所做的事情。另一方面,不可能有上帝,因为我们的感官必须由某人创造。因此,一定有一个邪恶的魔鬼欺骗了我们。但是,既然他怀疑一切,那么他就不会被误导去相信一个魔鬼。所以,在后来的冥想中,他证明了上帝是存在的,他不是一个骗子。

英国留学生作业代写:知道的涵义

The KK thesis that Descartes uses is to show how these arguments work. The KK thesis follows: if a knows that p, then a knows that a knows that p. basically this means that if I know that there is snow outside then I know that I know that there is snow outside. The problem with this argument is that if we are not sure about our senses then there is no way that we can be sure about the knowledge that we possess. In making this thesis work one must have a strong understanding of what “knowing” really means. But there is no way that one can actually have this understanding. One must have self-knowledge or basically one must really know himself/herself. Therefore if you do not have that notion of self then you do not possess any knowledge.As we can see the KK thesis works in favour with what Descartes is saying in all of his arguments. The only problem is that he does not believe that his argument about God is that strong. He feels that if there is an Omnipotent God then there is no way that he could ever deceive us.There is no way that he could be all knowing and make us doubt the things that we do. On the other hand there is no way that there could be no God because our senses had to be created by someone. Therefore there must have been an evil demon that has deceived us. But since he doubts everything then he is not mislead into the false believing of a demon. So, in a later meditation he proves that there is a God and that he is not a deceiver.

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