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英国伦敦论文代写:日常语言

在日常语言中,信念这个词指的是我们在不同程度上都是确定的,我们在不同程度上都有证据这可能是真的,也可能不是。我们说的信仰是当一个小孩强烈地相信Sinterklaas的时候,就像我们说的信仰是当一个人模糊地相信在马斯特里赫特市中心停车而没有停车罚单时,她会得到罚款一样。虽然这两种情况都有不同的确定性和不同的可能性是正确的,但我们没有明确区分这种信念在多大程度上是确定的,有证据支持,或者它是否真的是正确的。在哲学中,它规定了所指的信仰类型。此外,一项权利要求只有在其持有人确信时才称为信仰;这意味着希望和信仰可以被排除在信仰的定义之外。下面我将阐述三种不同的信仰,以及它们如何与现实主义框架中的知识相联系。首先,基于证据的信念比没有证据的信念更接近于知识。然而,有许多信念是错误的,尽管有一些证据支持。相信Sinterklaas的孩子肯定有一些证据,比如看到一个演员穿着Sinterklaas的服装,然而她的想法是错误的。第二,让我们假设这个信念是真实的,有证据支持。它可以构成知识,但它所依据的证据可能过于薄弱,无法断定基于证据的真实信念是知识(Creel)。第三,证据标准是为了排除弱证据的可能性而指定的——证据需要足够有力,使人们的信念是合理的。那么,当信仰知识可以说是正当而真实的时候,它是一种信仰知识吗?这就是意见分歧的地方。克里尔认为,根据知识的正当化理论,一个主张的正当化必须是结论性的,才能被称为知识。在很长一段时间里,一个合理的真实信念(JTB)一直是知识的标准描述。两人关系密切,1963年都受到埃德蒙·盖蒂埃的挑战。

英国伦敦论文代写:日常语言

The word belief in everyday language refers to a claim that we are certain of in varying degrees, that we have evidence for in varying degrees and that may or may not be true. We speak of belief when a young child strongly believes in Sinterklaas, just as we speak of belief when a person vaguely believes that she will receive a fine when parking her car in central Maastricht without a parking ticket. While both cases have varying certainty and varying likeliness to be true, we do not explicitly distinguish to what extent the belief is certain, backed by evidence or whether it is actually true.In philosophy it is specified what kind of belief is referred to. Further, a claim is only called a belief when its holder is certain of it; this means that hope and faith can be excluded from this definition of belief . Hereinafter I shall elaborate on three different kinds of belief and how they relate to knowledge in the realist framework.First, a belief based on evidence is closer to being knowledge than a belief without evidence. However, there are many beliefs that are false, despite being backed by some evidence. Surely the child believing in Sinterklaas has some evidence, such as having seen an actor dressed in the Sinterklaas costume, yet her belief is false. Second, let us assume the belief is true and backed by evidence. It can constitute knowledge, but the evidence on which it is based could too weak to conclude that true, evidence based beliefs are knowledge (Creel). Third, the evidence criterion is specified to exclude the possibility of weak evidence – the evidence needs to be so strong, that the belief is justified. Is then a belief knowledge, when it can be said to be justified and true? This is where opinions diverge. Creel states that according to the justification theory of knowledge, the justification of a claim needs to be conclusive to be called knowledge. Claims that for a long time a justified true belief (JTB) has been the standard account of knowledge. Both are closely related, and both have been challenged 1963 by Edmund Gettier.

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