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英国商科论文代写:CRM第二代系统

开发第二代CRM程序是为了在上述程序的基础上进行改进。1986年,NASA举办了一个研讨会,旨在讨论CRM项目实施所面临的新挑战(Helmreich et al., 1999)。从会议上可以看出,客户关系管理不久将不再是一种单独的培训,而将被纳入飞行培训和飞行操作中。在这一时期,市场上出现了新一代的CRM项目。这些项目改变了驾驶舱的名称,用机组人员取代了它,以反映目标的多样性,因为很明显,除了飞行员,其他机组人员,包括机械师,在飞行安全中扮演着重要角色。新的计划成为达美航空计划的蓝本,该计划更关注给定的航空概念,这些概念与飞行操作相关(Helmreich et al., 1999)。与以前的程序相比,新的程序也是模块化和面向团队的。他们也通过研讨会进行授课,但重点讲述了飞行的重要方面,如团队建设、简报策略、压力管理,以及其他在最初的培训中被淘汰的方面。模块的深度被植入决策策略和机组人员可以用来打破可能使飞机陷入灾难的错误链的策略。然而,这些项目和第一代项目没有太大区别,因为培训主要是通过练习和示范进行的,有时与航空无关。这些项目比第一代项目更受欢迎。然而,他们却被批评为“胡言乱语”。这些第二代程序中的大多数仍在美国和世界其他地方使用。

英国商科论文代写:CRM第二代系统

The second generation CRM programs were developed to improve on the programs discussed above. In 1986, NASA held a workshop which was aimed at discussing the emerging challenges facing the implementation of CRM programs (Helmreich et al., 1999). From the conference, it emerged that CRM would soon cease to be a stand-alone training when it would be incorporate in flight training and also in flight operations. Around this period, there was new generation of CRM programs that were coming into the market. These programs changed the name cockpit and replaced it with crew in order to reflect the diversity of the targets since it become evident that apart from pilots, other crew members, including mechanics, had a major role to play in flight safety. The new programs became a blue print of Delta Airlines program that was focused more on the given aviation concepts, which were related to flight operations (Helmreich et al., 1999). The new programs were also modular and team oriented compared to the earlier programs. They were also delivered through seminars but dwelt on important aspect of flight like team building, briefing strategies, stress management, and others which had been eliminated from initial trainings. The depth of the module was implanted on the decision making strategies and the strategies that crews could use to break chain of errors that were likely to land the flight into catastrophe. However, there was no much distinction between these programs and the first generation program since training was mainly carried out through exercise and demonstrations which sometimes were not related to aviation. These programs were accepted more than the first generation program. They were however criticized for being ‘psycho-babble’. Most of these second generation program continue to be used in United States and other parts of the world as well.

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