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团队建设方面最重要的学者之一梅雷迪思•贝尔宾(Meredith Belbin)指出,为了有效地发挥组织功能,团队需要拥有不同技能和属性的成员。在她的研究中,她发现有9个可选的“团队角色”(详见附录)。Belbin观察到,最有效的团队至少拥有5个角色,最理想的情况是7个角色,团队中的单个成员能够完成多个角色,但很少超过两个。塔克曼认为,当人们第一次聚集在一个团队中时,他们会经历团队发展的不同阶段,通常被称为“形成、规范、风暴和执行”。这个概念反映在背页的图2中。简而言之,该理论认为,当员工被带到一个团队中,他们会经历一个渐进的过程,在这个过程中,他们开始理解和欣赏彼此的技能和长处,然后利用这些互补的技能为整个团队带来最大的优势。塔克曼历史已经表明,理论已经几乎普遍应用,然而,当与Belbin结合使用的理论变得更加强大,就可以提前确定是否我可能成功基于一组独特的每个团队成员的技能和属性。例如,如果一个群体中有太多的“植物”,那么这个群体很可能是高度创造性的,但是这些想法很少会转化为行动。同样,太多的协调可能会导致争论,因为众所周知,协调者的角色相当顽固,甚至具有操控性。


One of the foremost scholars of team building, Meredith Belbin, identified that in order to function effectively an organisational team requires members with different skills and attributes. In her research she identified that there are nine alternative “team roles” as she described them (see Appendix for full details). Belbin observed that the most effective teams possessed at least 5 and ideally 7 of the roles, and that an individual member within a team was capable of fulfilling more than one role, but rarely more than two. Tuckman established that when people are first brought together in a team they experience various stages of team development, popularly referred to as “forming, norming, storming and performing”. This concept is reflected in Figure 2 overleaf. In short, the theory holds that as employee are brought together in a group they experience an evolutionary process whereby they come to understand and appreciate one another’s skills and strengths and then utilise these complementary skills for the best advantage of the team as a whole.History has shown that Tuckman’s theory has almost universal application, however, when used in combination with Belbin’s theory it becomes even more powerful as it becomes possible to identify in advance whether or not a group I likely to succeed based on the unique skills and attributes of each team member. For example, if there are too many “plants” within a group then it is likely that the group will be highly creative but the ideas will rarely be translated into action. Similarly, too many co-ordinations is likely to result in arguments as the co-ordinator role is known to be quite stubborn and even manipulative.


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