几乎同一时间罗伯特•布朗发现了细胞的细胞核,而1868年费迪李希Miescher瑞士生物学家报道核蛋白质,核酸组成的一个复合,他即从脓细胞。、白血细胞。这两个发现成为现代分子生物学的基础遗传物质DNA的发现和作用的DNA遗传信息的转移。1 n 1881年,罗伯特•科赫,德国医生描述了细菌菌落生长在土豆片(第一个固体培养基)。沃尔特·海塞的一个联合工人在科赫公司的实验室发现了琼脂,当他问她的妻子是果冻即使在夏天的高温固体。此后营养琼脂成为最可接受的和有用的媒介获得纯微生物文化以及他们的身份。1888年,威廉•戈特弗里德•冯•海因里希Waldeyer-Hartz,德国科学家创造了这个词染色体,这被认为是一个有组织的DNA和蛋白质的结构存在于细胞或一块盘包含许多基因的DNA,监管元素和其它核苷酸序列。其他发现在此期间接种天花疫苗、狂犬病由英国医生爱德华·詹纳和路易·巴斯德法国生物学家。
Almost the same time Robert Brown had discovered the nucleus of cells, while in 1868 Fredrich Miescher, a Swiss biologist reported nuclein, a compound that consist of nucleic acid that he extracted from pus cells i.e., White Blood Cells. These two discoveries became the basis of modern molecular biology for the discovery of DNA as genetic material and role of DNA in transfer of genetic information. 1n 1881, Robert Koch, a German physician described the bacterial colonies growing on potato slices (First ever solid medium). Walter Hesse, one of the co- workers in Koch’s laboratory discovered agar when he asked her wife what kept the jelly solid even in high temperature of summer. Since then nutrient agar became the most acceptable and useful medium to obtain pure microbial culture as well as for their identification. In 1888, Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried Von Waldeyer-Hartz, a German scientist coined the term Chromosome, which is considered as an organized structure of DNA and protein present in cells or a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences. Other discoveries during this period were vaccination against small pox and rabies developed by Edward Jenner a British Physician and Louis Pasteur a French Biologist.