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这是当时的竞合声称穆斯林思想继续繁荣光亮三世纪先知去世后,引入了如al Tabari这样的顶级水准的历史学家、数学家,如Al Khawarizmi,如al Battani的天文学家,物理学家,如Al Biruni,以及其他许多人。Â(说与汗,1996,第44页)。其反进化论和绝对的态度,正宗的仍然是重新征服的领土,拥有一只现代学校的主要障碍,在早期的世纪!这种自由主义的相对主义的态度并不广为革命只打开门;它只是一个附加的紧张冲突,正统的穆斯林有零星地称他们为非信徒和发布宗教法令对他们的死亡!这将是更好的综合观Â在绝对主义和相对主义并存,而作为一个对Â合作。



This third chapter is to seek what caused stagnation in Ijtihad, than find answers for how to possibly revive and initiate a Revolutionary Contemporary Ijtihad? It looks also at its common misconceptions and finally cites the newly existing subjects; which need an urgent attention from current mujtahids.


The fear of traditionalist that theological debates may create havoc and uncertainty is groundless; as there is already a great deal of havoc and uncertainty because of the accumulated Ijtihad methods and absolute policies. The traditionalist school has to defend its position in free open theological debates, on the base of Quranic teachings that human are able to rationalise for themselves; as it is baseless to claim that such debated matters have already been argued and resolved along before. To advance positively the civilization; every generation need to revise and sift its heritage by retaining the good facets and discarding the bad ones. Within the shari’ah spheres; the theological debates have to be liberated again from Shafi’s traditional-blockade.

There is prevailing concurrence asserts that the Muslim-thought continued to thrive luminously for three centuries after the Prophet’s death, introducing such top-calibre historian such as al-Tabari, mathematician such as Al-Khawarizmi, astronomer such as al-Battani, physicist such as Al-Biruni, and many others. (Said &Khan, 1996, p.44). The orthodox school with its anti-evolutionary and absolutist attitude is still the major obstacle for the modern school to re-conquest the Ijtihad’s territories that was owned once, in the early centuries! This liberal modernist relativist attitude does not wide-open the doors for revolutionary Ijtihad; it is just an add-on tension to the conflict where orthodox Muslims have sporadically labelled them as non-believers and issued death-religious-edicts against them! It will be better to have comprehensive outlook where absolutism and relativism coexist and cooperate rather as a pair.Â

One of the key problems challenging the Muslim nation now is frequently swamped in nostalgia for long-ago glories and confined into the past customary approaches of Ijtihad. The hard-hitting equation that the past Muslim scholars paved the way for Western notions of reason which tended to be sophisticatedly categorised for example Western critique of reason is outstandingly segmented into various types of reasoning: critical reason, functional reason, instrumental reason, imperialist reason, abstract reason… While the Muslim scholars of Ijtihad are still oblivious which definition should be given to reason whether analogical or consensual…Instead of seriously looking how to revive their Ijtihad and enriching it with the new scientific achievements!