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英国斯特灵议会区:法律精神

此外,孟德斯鸠在1783年出版了《法律精神》,并声称“最好的政府”是君主立宪制,即君主立宪制,将其政治权力与另一个执政权力分享。因此,孟德斯鸠建议法国应该建立这样的政府,以达到和英国一样的成功。通过这种形式的政府,孟德斯鸠建议将主权与贵族分享。因此,他的观点并不能代表整个国家的人民,包括资产阶级和农民。(法国革命:思想和意识形态)。国王也拒绝分享权力,所以被认为是不切实际的解决方案。然而,孟德斯鸠对法国大革命产生了重要的影响,这一新的主权观念在《人与公民权利宣言》中表达了出来。第三条规定,任何人都不能行使控制他人的权力。另一位启蒙哲学家卢梭提出了自我统治和直接民主的思想。这个想法表明所有公民都有参与政治的平等权利。根据哲学研究权威吉姆·麦克亚当的观点,卢梭的结论是,人类平等的思想影响了法国大革命。这是因为自治的提议概述了所有公民享有参与国家事务的权利的平等。一般民众可以参与政治的想法也很有吸引力,因为与当时的神职人员和当时的人相比,平民没有社会地位、特权和管理政治事务的权利。受到孟德斯鸠和卢梭的政治平等思想的启发,平民们受到鼓舞,采取行动为他们的政治自由而战。

英国斯特灵议会区:法律精神

In addition, Montesquieu published The Spirit of the Laws in 1783 and claimed the best government was a kind of constitutional monarchy, which was a monarchy that shared its political powers with another governing power. Consequently, Montesquieu suggested that France should model this kind of government in order to achieve the same success as England did. With this form of government Montesquieu suggested the sharing of sovereignty with the aristocracy. Hence, his view didn’t represent the whole population of the country, including the bourgeoisie and peasants. (The French Revolution: Ideas and Ideologies). The king also rejected the sharing of power, so it was considered as an impractical solution. However, Montesquieu had made an essential influence on the French Revolution with this new idea of sovereignty, which was expressed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. The clause three stated that no individual could exercise the power of controlling over others. Another Enlightenment philosopher, Rousseau, however proposed the idea of self-ruling and direct democracy. The idea stated all citizens have the equality to participate in politics (MacAdam). According to an authority of philosophical studies, Jim MacAdam, concluded Rousseau impacted French Revolution by the idea of human equality. This was because the proposal of self-ruling outlined the equality among all citizens to have the rights participating the affairs of the nation. The idea that the general population could participate in politics was also deeply appealing because compared to clergies and nobilities at the time, commoners had no social status, privileges, and rights to manage political affairs. Inspired by the idea of equality in politics from Montesquieu and Rousseau, the commoners were inspired to take actions to fight for their political freedom.

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