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In addition, Montesquieu published The Spirit of the Laws in 1783 and claimed the best government was a kind of constitutional monarchy, which was a monarchy that shared its political powers with another governing power. Consequently, Montesquieu suggested that France should model this kind of government in order to achieve the same success as England did. With this form of government Montesquieu suggested the sharing of sovereignty with the aristocracy. Hence, his view didn’t represent the whole population of the country, including the bourgeoisie and peasants. (The French Revolution: Ideas and Ideologies). The king also rejected the sharing of power, so it was considered as an impractical solution. However, Montesquieu had made an essential influence on the French Revolution with this new idea of sovereignty, which was expressed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. The clause three stated that no individual could exercise the power of controlling over others. Another Enlightenment philosopher, Rousseau, however proposed the idea of self-ruling and direct democracy. The idea stated all citizens have the equality to participate in politics (MacAdam). According to an authority of philosophical studies, Jim MacAdam, concluded Rousseau impacted French Revolution by the idea of human equality. This was because the proposal of self-ruling outlined the equality among all citizens to have the rights participating the affairs of the nation. The idea that the general population could participate in politics was also deeply appealing because compared to clergies and nobilities at the time, commoners had no social status, privileges, and rights to manage political affairs. Inspired by the idea of equality in politics from Montesquieu and Rousseau, the commoners were inspired to take actions to fight for their political freedom.


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