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英国哲学论文代写:定义了社会事实

埃米尔迪尔凯姆用两种方式定义了社会事实。首先是这样的“社会事实是任何一种行为方式,不管它是否固定,都能够对个体施加外部约束”[4]。在这个定义中,迪尔凯姆引入了“社会约束”的概念,它将行为背后的推理认定为社会事实。也就是说,一个人在如何行动,或一开始就行动上有各种各样的压力。如果他/她违反并打破了这种约束,其后果可能是道德上的(不道德的感觉;由你周围的人判断)或在更大的范围-合法的[5]。在电影中,我们可以看到社会约束的例子在不同的程度上在所有的三个故事线。例如,在电影的开头,摩洛哥家庭的父亲为他年幼的儿子买了一把来复枪,这样他们就可以保护羊群免受豺狼的伤害。当两个儿子测试步枪时,似乎弟弟(尤瑟夫)比哥哥(艾哈迈德)射得更好。这可以解释为对艾哈迈德的一种社会约束,他觉得自己被其他人评判,即使他不是。可能促进这种判断感的是摩洛哥的一种强有力的父权统治,在某种程度上,摩洛哥人承受了更多的压力。在某种程度上,这导致了公交车枪击事件,艾哈迈德试图证明他能比他的弟弟射得更好。

英国哲学论文代写:定义了社会事实

Emile Durkheim defined social fact in two ways. First goes as following “A social fact is any way of acting, whether fixed or not, capable of exerting over the individual an external constraint” [4] . In this definition, Durkheim introduces the idea of “social constraint” which identifies reasoning behind actions as social facts. Meaning that there are various pressures on an individual on how to act, or of to act in the first place. If he/she violates and breaks this constraint, the consequence of this might be moral (sense of wrongdoing; being judged by people around you) or on the greater scale – legal [5] . In the movie we can see examples of social constraints to a different extent in all of the 3 story lines. For example, in the beginning of the film the father of the Moroccan family purchases a rifle for his young sons so that they can defend the sheep from jackals. When both of the sons test the rifle, it appeared that younger brother (Yussef) shoots better that the older one (Ahmed). This can be interpreted as a social constraint for Ahmed, who felt being judged by the others, even if he was not. What might have given boost to this feeling of judgement is the case of a strong patriarchal rule in Morocco, where more pressure, to some extent, is put on a man. To some level this led to the incident of the bus shooting, where Ahmed was trying to prove that he can shoot better than his younger brother.

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