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英吉利理工大学Assignment代写:伊拉克妇女与个人地位法

英吉利理工大学Assignment代写:伊拉克妇女与个人地位法

个人地位法是指在国家宪法中,指婚姻、离婚、监护、继承等方面的规定的术语。在许多国家,这些法律是由一个世俗的,民法的一部分,具有独立的法院审理纠纷。历史上的女性已经更加敏感的个人地位的法律,也被称为家庭法,因为他们的家庭照顾者与女性地位。法律属于个人的地位在伊拉克经历了三个主要时期的转变;在海湾战争前的伊拉克,个人地位的原法地点定在1959年12月30日;若干规定(篇)进行了修正,几滴,和几个更增加了整个1970年代;海湾战争后的伊拉克在代码转换的一个转折点当女人开始看到在他们的个人权利地位下降;法律被修改,再次为美国领导的入侵后果2003和伊拉克新宪法的起草工作。通过看这三个时间段和当时的政治气氛,我们可以看到消极的转变和国家操纵的个人状态法。未来的妇女在伊拉克的地位和他们的权利,在个人身份的代码也将被讨论。这将是明确的从这次考试,而女性在对伊拉克的个人地位的法律的影响是成功的,往往不是法律已被作为政治工具的掌权者,不敬的需要该国女性人口。

重要的是要考虑国际人权观念的发展,关系到目前的辩论在中东。这个框架的目的是提供一个基础,从中我们可以了解伊斯兰教法和个人身份法之间的重大压力的来源。

欧洲启蒙运动时期欧美地区形成的人权问题。“个人权利应该是最重要的一个政治系统”的出现,强调“个人主义、人文主义、理性主义”(Mayer,44)是当代国际人权原则的基础上。这些西方基金会很好地解释了欧美地区和伊斯兰之间的紧张关系的原因,但在人权的理解,紧张的根源在于,我们必须看看伊斯兰作为一个机构。

伊斯兰教是中东文化和传统的基石。无论现代化努力,“伊斯兰”的主导地位仍然存在。宗教的主导地位影响着生活的各个方面,包括人权的话语,因此,穆斯林在人权问题上的地位是复杂的。穆斯林不都有一个共同的信念,在人权问题上的立场是什么或他们的伊斯兰文化传统的关系,国际人权规范”(Mayer,11)。中东,自然,是一个深入渗透的地区,在其历史上处理西方说服的影响。人权概念只是中东必须吸收和适用于他们国家的另一个标准。然而,这些概念也是公认的国际法的一部分,承认“国际法作为国际法”(Mayer,12),穆斯林被绑定到这些规范。因此,穆斯林拒绝国际人权的基础上,伊斯兰教是矛盾的。

英吉利理工大学Assignment代写:伊拉克妇女与个人地位法

Personal Status law is the term applied to those provisions in a state’s constitution that refer to the areas of marriage, divorce, custody, and inheritance. In many countries these laws are constructed as part of a secular, civil code, with independent courts adjudicating disputes. Historically women have been much more sensitive to personal status laws, also referred to as family law, because of their position in the household as caregivers and matriarchs. The laws that pertain to personal status in Iraq have undergone three main periods of transformation; in pre-Gulf War Iraq, the original law of personal status was set in place on December 30, 1959; several of the provisions (articles) were then amended, a few dropped, and several more added throughout the 1970’s; post-Gulf War Iraq was a crucial turning point in the transformation of the code when women began to see a decline in their personal status rights; the laws were altered yet again as a consequence of the U.S. led invasion in 2003 and the drafting of a new Iraqi Constitution. By looking at these three time periods and the prevailing political atmospheres, we can then see the negative transformation and state manipulation of the personal status law. The future of the status of women in Iraq and their rights as recognized in a personal status code will also be discussed. It will be clear from this examination that while women have been successful in exerting some influence on laws of personal status in Iraq, more often than not the laws have been manipulated as a political tool by those in power, irreverent of the needs or wants of the country’s female population.

It is important to consider the development of international human rights perceptions in relation to the current debate in the Middle East. The purpose of this framework is to provide a foundation from which we can understand the source of significant tension between Shari’a Law and Personal Status Law.

Human rights formed in the West during the European Enlightenment. The idea that “the rights of the individual should be of paramount importance in a political system” emerged and the emphasis on “individualism, humanism, and rationalism” (Mayer, 44) is the basis for contemporary international human rights principles. These Western foundations do well to explain the cause of tension between the West and Islam over human rights but to understand where the source of tension lies, we must look at Islam as an institution.

Islam is the cornerstone of Middle East culture and tradition. Regardless of modernization efforts, Islamic primacy still remains. The dominance of religion affects all aspects of life including the human rights discourse and, as a result, the Muslim position on human rights is complex. “Muslims do not have a common belief about what the Islamic position on human rights is or the relationship of their cultural tradition to international human rights norms” (Mayer, 11). The Middle East, by nature, is a deeply penetrated region dealing with the impact of Western persuasion throughout its history. Human rights concepts are just another standard that the Middle East has had to assimilate and apply to their countries. However, these concepts are also part of accepted international law and by acknowledging “international law as the law of nations” (Mayer, 12), Muslims are bound to these norms. Thus, Muslim rejection to international human rights on the basis of Islam is contradictory.

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