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虽然scaffolding不是Vygotskian术语,但是为了很好地适应ZPD, Wood、Bruner和Ross在该理论中添加了scaffolding (Schunk, 2008)。教学脚手架也是控制超出学习者能力范围的任务元素的过程。这是充分支持促进学习的条件。支持可以包括一些资源、一项引人注目的任务、模板、关于认知和社交技能发展的指南和指导。在支架式教学过程中,教师成为近端发展区学生的辅助工具。理想教师的特点是脚手架:“提供支持,作为工具发挥作用,扩大学习者的范围,允许完成其他可能的任务,只在需要时选择性地使用”。简而言之,教师创建了一个ZPD,并为学生的成功提供了框架(Moll, 2001, as引Schunk, 2008)。此外,对于脚手架过程来说,先验知识对维果茨凯恩教师有着重要的作用。因为,如果有更多有知识的人,教师需要给予较少的帮助。互惠教学是一种以教师与学生就课文片段进行对话的教学活动。教师和学生轮流扮演教师的角色来领导这一对话(Schunk, 2008)。互动式教学的目的是促进教师和学生在赋予文本意义的任务上共同努力。对话的结构包括总结、提问、澄清和预测。


Although scaffolding is not a Vygotskian term, in order to it fit nicely in the ZPD, it added by Wood, Bruner and Ross in the theory (Schunk, 2008). Instructional scaffolding is also the process of controlling task elements that are beyond learners’ capabilities (Schunk, 2008). It is the condition of sufficient support to promote learning. Supports can include some resources, a compelling task, templates and guides and guidance on the development of cognitive and social skills. In scaffolding process, the instructor becomes a supportive tool for the student in the zone of proximal development. The characteristics of an ideal teacher are those of a scaffold: “provide support, function as a tool, extend the range of the learner, permit attainment of task otherwise possible, use selectively only as needed”. In short, instructor creates a ZPD and provides the scaffolding for students to be successful (Moll, 2001 as cited Schunk, 2008). Moreover, for scaffolding process prior knowledge have an important role for Vygotskain teacher. Because, teacher need to give less assistance if there is more prior knowledgeable person.Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. Teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue (Schunk, 2008). The purpose of reciprocal teaching is to facilitate a group effort between teacher and students in the task of bringing meaning to the text. The dialogue is structured by the use of summarizing, question generating, clarifying and predicting .


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