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这可能是相关的问这些系统究竟是如何激励孩子从事学习过程。这是必要的行为规则,使成员的类是不受干扰的其他成员的类。在我的基础学校,行为似乎并不是一个问题,我相信这主要取决于奖励和识别系统,学校已经到位。这让我怀疑惩罚的恐惧本身是否会激励孩子们学习。在许多方面,学习的动机必须是内在的,这是内部的个人。作为一个成年人,这可以立即辨认,和任何人做研究,作为一个成年人,会意识到这一必要的自我激励。然而,孩子的世界是一个总是存在外在动机,通常是通过成人沟通-这些东西被认为是愉快和必要的成年人在一个孩子的生活。因此,惩罚和奖励所隐含的动机类型,也许是学习的必要条件,无论是对个人和学习共同体的课堂。这些奖励和惩罚的规范也许是适合特定的学习环境的。例如,Roland Fryer,美国经济学家和教育顾问是一个倡导者的财政奖励的内城高中的孩子考试时通过(纽约时报,2008)。虽然我自己对此的反应最初是至关重要的,但油炸食品公司的系统确实反映了成人世界基本上工作的原则–财务奖励的努力。另一方面,有一种说法,学习应该是出于学习的愿望,享受学习。我建议在小学的奖励是必要的,但大量的内在的学习动机可以通过创新和创意课老师的计划沟通,丰富的奖励和惩罚制度也许是那么最好的支持这种做法使学生的动机包括推拉因素。


It may be pertinent to ask how exactly these systems motivate children to engage with the learning process. It is necessary to have behavioural rules so that members of the class are free from interference from other members of the class. At my base school, behaviour does not seem to be a problem and I believe this is largely down to rewards and recognition systems which the school has in place. This leads me to question whether the fear of punishment itself actually motivates children to learn. In many ways, the motivation to learn must be intrinsic, that is internal to the individual. As an adult this may be immediately recognisable, and anyone undertaking studies as an adult will be aware of this necessary self-motivation. However the world of a child is one in which there is always a presence of extrinsic motivation, usually communicated through adults – those things which are deemed pleasing and necessary by the adults in a child’s life. Therefore the type of motivation implied by punishments and rewards is perhaps a necessary condition of learning, both for the individual and learning community of the classroom. The specification of these rewards and punishments is perhaps best fitted to particular learning environments. For example, Roland Fryer, an American economist and educational advisor is an advocate of financial rewards for inner-city high school children when exams are passed (New York Times, 2008). Though my own response to this was initially critical, but Fryer’s system does reflect a principle on which the adult world largely works – that of financial reward for effort. On the other hand, there is an argument that learning should be motivated by the desire to learn for the enjoyment of learning. I would suggest that in the primary school rewards are indeed necessary, but much of the intrinsic motivation to learn can be communicated through the teacher’s planning of innovative and creative lessons, A varied system of rewards and punishments is perhaps then the best support for this approach so that the motivation of the pupils consists of both pull and push factors.


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